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Education and Socio-Economic Research Institute


Education and Socio-Economic Research Institute

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Mrs. Christine Pejakovic

Director of the Education and Socio-Economic Research Institute



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Stone. I.R,(1971) pp. 25-34

Proposals for the foundation of government school in Seychelles. (1850-1891)

Research Style: Descriptive

Type of publication: Article in History of Education Society bulletin, 1971

Abstract: Historical overview of the institution of government schools in Seychelles: its accomplishments and pitfalls

Belle P. A (1976)

Early Childhood Education: Teacher Behaviors from a Cross Cultural Perspective

Research Style: Correlational/comparative case study

Type of publication: Opinion Papers

Abstract: Reported in this document are observations of early childhood education in England, Israel, Seychelles, and China. Specifically, observations focus on (1) teacher behavior, including behavior toward individuals, small groups, and large groups or whole classes; (2) teacher demonstration behaviors; (3) teacher verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as physical proximity to students, responses to children’s requests, verbal elaboration, requests for children’s responses, and interventions intended to help children respond. With the exception of the Chinese, comparison revealed considerable similarity in educational systems designed for the child from 3 to 8 years of age. Chinese schooling was found to be far more group- and recitation-oriented than the other systems observed. Although techniques in most schools were similar, the extent of their use varied considerably. Concluding remarks comment on school organization and administration, briefly describing pupil/teacher ratio, teacher training, and financial support. (RH)

Bollée A : (1979)°

Le Créole français des Seychelles

Research Style: Descriptive linguistic analysis

Type of publication: Book

Abstract: Introduction and description of Seselwa Creole as a language. Description of vocabulary and syntax

Fayon, M.(1981) pp. 64-66

From school to work: The Seychelles experience

Research Style: Experimental : Description of intervention

Type of publication: Article in International journal of educational development (1) 2

Abstract: Dominie Savio pilot work experience scheme. An experiment being conducted on a pilot basis in a Seychelles school to smooth the transition between school and the world of work

Henderson, S. (1982) pp. 234-241

The Seychelles National Youth Service

Research Style: Descriptive         

Type of publication: Article in Community development journal, (17) 3

Abstract: The Seychelles National Youth Service: Background, challenges and way forward.

Richmond E.B (1983)

Language Teaching In The Indian Ocean: Policy And Pedagogy In Three Developing Nations. A Study Of The Formation Of National Language Policies And Related Educational Programs In The Comoros, Mauritius, And Seychelles

Research Style: Descriptive Policy Analysis           

Type of publication: Book

Abstract: A Study of the Formation of National Language Policies and Related Educational Programs in the Comoros, Mauritius, and Seychelles

Karunairajan, R. D (1984)

In Seychelles all children are special

 Research Style: Descriptive: situational analysis of social and education policies  

Type of publication: Article in International Journal of Early Childhood, 16 (2), p.73

Abstract: Traces the 1977 Seychelles revolution and its resultant democracy, emphasizing the availability of health education, recreation, and welfare for all Seychelles children. It is advocated that this national response to children’s needs identify Seychelles as an example to developed and developing nations of the world. (DST)

Pardiwalla, R. (1985) pp.111-116

Population education and family life in Seychelles

 Research Style: Descriptive: Description of process          

Type of publication: Article in Educafrica Bulletin of the UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Africa (English version), (12)

Abstract: Following a request from the Ministries concerned, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities agreed, in 1979, to finance a five year ‘Maternal and child health project’. The main goal was to enhance the development of healthy, mature, responsible attitudes towards sexuality. The immediate concern was to cut down on the rate of teenage pregnancies, limit the incidence of venereal diseases, eradicate illegal abortions and encourage childspacing. After a period of counter-reaction, a draft curriculum was put into place in 1981. Today, Family Life Education forms an integral component of the curriculum in all schools .

Richmond, E. B (1986)

A Comparative Survey of Seven Adult Functional Literacy Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa

Research Style: Descriptive (comparative analysis of programs)  

Type of publication: Report (Book)

Abstract: A study compares the adult functional literacy campaigns and programs developed in seven African nations: the Gambia, Liberia, Mali, Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, and Seychelles. After an introductory chapter outlining the background of African adult functional literacy efforts and some of the constraints on them, the second chapter gives an overview of 6 of the 7 countries’ literacy activities. Chapter 3 describes a detailed longitudinal study of the literacy campaign in the Republic of Mali from its inception to the present, with projections into the future. The Mali program was chosen for an in-depth analysis because it has been considered one of the best organized, most efficiently functioning programs on the continent, having total government commitment and support. The fourth chapter analyzes the material presented in the previous chapters and offers some conclusions and implications for curriculum development and further research. (Author/MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)

Brophy, M. Pillay, P. (1986)

Integrated Science in the Seychelles: an evaluation

Research Style: Diagnostic: Evaluation of integrated science program      

Type of publication: Article in Research in science & technological education, (4) 1 p.89-98

Abstract: Presentation of findings following an evaluation of the integrated Science program in P7-P9 . Evaluation of structure and activities in relation to learners needs and interests.

Butler, C. (1992)

Medical, Educational and Social Care of children with disability: Mediterranean, Africa, India and Southeast Asia

Research Style: Investigative and Descriptive

Type of publication: Report

Abstract: Four reports on the care of children with disabilities, resulting from a study/travel project in Greece, Turkey, Egypt, Kenya, South Africa, Seychelles, India, Nepal, Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. The first report focuses on the medical, educational, and social care of children with disabilities. It first summarizes the status of rehabilitation efforts overall and then provides a summary of rehabilitation efforts by individual countries visited. The social circumstances of children and their families are reviewed and major problems identified. The second report focuses on innovative ideas in rehabilitation seen during the trip. These address: collecting data on disability, changing societal attitudes, personnel development, health care delivery, technical aids, education, vocational training and income generation, family support, and service delivery. Community-based rehabilitation is the focus of many of these innovations. The third report is on pioneering effective solutions in rehabilitation. Topics covered include: promoting a national network of knowledgeable, skilled organizations; establishing a health care infrastructure; providing affordable technical aids; increasing social acceptance of disability; changing awareness of the potential for improvement; demonstrating a model for integrated education in urban and rural settings; and increasing levels of education. The fourth report looks at societal attitudes and the disability movement, focusing on ways people with disabilities are viewed; ways availability of services has improved; personnel training and professional standards; roles of families, schools, churches, and community organizations; how people with disabilities influence change; response to needs and resources of families; and how disability advocates can help in other countries. Contains 38 references. (DB)

Bolléé , A : (1993) pp.85-100

Language policy in the Seychelles and its consequences

Research Style: Descriptive analysis policy and policy actions      

Type of publication: Article in International journal of the sociology of language, (102)

Abstract: The official & popular acceptance of Seychellois Creole (SC) as the first national language of Seychelles is related to language policy developments of the 1979-1981 period, during the first years of the revolutionary socialist government: (1) elevation of Creole to official status, (2) establishment of official trilingualism to replace the English-French “balanced bilingualism” of the early republic, & (3) adoption of creole as the medium of instruction & official ranking of the three national languages with creole first, English second, & French third. Consequences of the 1981 language policy are explored in the areas of education, written language development, & establishment of two organizations for standardization of SC, Komite Kreol & its successor within the Ministry of Education, Lenstiti Kreol. Although the teaching of SC itself needs improvement, encouraging results are reported from its use as a medium for other subjects. The limited use of SC in print media is examined. Normative, word-coining, & promotional activities of Komite Kreol & Lenstiti Kreol are described; a SC written code is in the process of development.

Leste, A. (1994)

The socialisation of young people in the national youth service of Seychelles

Research Style: Diagnostic study of the disintegration of the Seychelles National Youth Service (NYS)

Type of publication: PhD Thesis

Abstract: Chapter 1 traces the influence of the elitist and the collectivist societal forces, on the educational system of Seychelles and on the implementation of NYS. Also, it analyses the pressures which dragged NYS away from its original notion of community-based, integrated education. Chapter 2 describes the theoretical perspectives and discusses the methodology which shapes the research. Participant Observation is justified as an appropriate strategy and the introduction of an Action Research element guides the discussion of the design and my research role. Chapter 3 documents the degeneration of the original intentions of an integrated curriculum. Descriptive analysis of the main features of the cluster exposes the erosion of the learning environment of the cluster. The initial classification of `successful’ and `unsuccessful’ animateurs is tested and a model of poor organisational support emerges. Chapter 4 centres on the reduction of the role of the animateur. Through case studies and in an adaptation of the leadership style of Lippit and White (1943), animateur style is investigated. When this is tested empirically, further insight into the deterioration of NYS is gained, with evidence of a resurgent authoritarianism in the system. Chapter 5 diagnoses distorting effects of the learning experiences of the students through an academically biased curriculum, an inadequate leisure programme and a limiting formal structure in the cluster. It is argued that students experience NYS, particularly, through the informal structure. Chapter 6 highlights the influence of the informal structure. It is revealed that although the academic structure of the Study Centre is reflected in the cluster, it is not supported by the `non-academic’ environment of the cluster. It is argued that this creates tension in the students as cluster life becomes dominated by the adolescent culture.

Nourrice, M.F (1998) pp6-7

A national sensitisation campaign in the Seychelles

Research Style: Descriptive: Case study of education program     

Type of publication: Article in Australian journal of career development. (7) 3

Abstract: In the Seychelles, as in other countries, one of the concerns of different agencies is the need to prepare the entire workforce for a flexible future and for rapid and unpredictable changes. Preparation for work is therefore a major goal of education. This case study reports on an aspect of career guidance programs in the Seychelles.

Lacey, C., Jacklin, A. & Leste. A. (1999) pp 167-179

Training teachers for a small island system: short-term and long-term outcomes

 Research Style: Diagnostic: Evaluation of discontinued teacher Training program.             

Type of publication: Article in: International journal of educational development, 1999, Vol.19 (2),

Abstract: Ten years ago the Seychelles Polytechnic initiated a joint teacher-training scheme with Sussex University and in five years trained 100 new Seychellois teachers for the secondary school system. This scheme achieved a numerical balance in favour of Seychellois teachers for the first time. The influx of Seychellois teachers produced a number of immediate advantages: there was a saving in the salary budget, the new teachers were able to supplement their lessons conducted in English with explanations in Kreol, and they also used a wider variety of teaching methods. They were more committed to teaching and were much preferred by the secondary school students. This paper presents findings from evaluations of the scheme. It describes the situation produced by the returnees, and follows this up with an analysis of the major developments since the scheme came to an end and since the four-year government bonding period for teachers ended. The final section of the paper discusses in more general terms the sustainability of education development projects and the implications for the progressive improvement of schemes.

Moumou, M. (2004) pp 46-58

Preparing our students for the future: Critical literacy in the Seychelles classrooms

Research Style: Diagnostic: Analysis of English literacy practice in Seychelles        

Type of publication: Article in English Teaching: Practice and Critique

Abstract: This paper problematises language use as being characterised by indeterminacy, heterogeneity and struggle. It discusses some of the issues that have resulted in a need for a critical literacy approach to language study. As the paper works towards a definition of critical literacy, it analyses the arrangements of power in society and the role of language in maintaining such arrangements. The current place of critical literacy in the English curriculum of the Seychelles is discussed, along with the possibilities and necessities for a critical approach to language study in the Seychelles classrooms. Finally, the paper reviews possible approaches for the teaching of critical literacy in secondary English classrooms of Seychelles.


Williams, J. (2005)

Distance Education for Technology Teachers

Research Style: Descriptive: Comparative Description of education approach       

Type of publication: Article in: The Journal of technology studies, 2004, Vol.30 (3), p.27

Abstract: This article describes a distance education approach that has been developed and implemented in Mauritius, Seychelles, and Botswana to help overcome limited teacher training opportunities and so help meet the demand for well-qualified technology teachers. It outlines the principles of course design, the mixed mode of delivery, and some of the issues of course delivery derived from program evaluation.

Moumou, M. (2005) pp 34-35

The Literature Study Programme Trial: Challenging Constructions of English in the Seychelles

Research Style: Explanatory: Description of processes: Implementation of English Literature Programme        

Type of publication: Article in: English teaching: practice and critique. (4) 2

Abstract: This paper provides an outline of the development and trialling during 2004 of the Literature Study Programme (LSP), a literature programme designed for use in the junior secondary classes of Seychelles. The programme was developed as a teaching and learning component concerned with the study of literature within the English language programme in the Seychelles, which had been hitherto absent in both the enacted and intended English language curriculum of the country. This paper reports on the structure and organisation of the LSP, its design philosophy, the assessment procedures employed, the results of the evaluation, and the implications for teaching literature at the junior secondary level in Seychelles. The results of the evaluation show a high level of support for literature as an area of study by both students and teachers. The programme as an initial design for teaching literature has also received a high level of approval from participants. Recommendations for the programme are also highlighted in this paper. The writer concludes with a word of caution against relegating literature study to the background.

Purvis, M-T, (2007)

School improvement in a small island developing state: the Seychelles

Research Style: Diagnostic: Case study of SIP      

Type of publication: PhD Thesis

Abstract: This thesis presents an evaluative case study of school improvement initiatives in the Seychelles, in a context specific to small island developing states (SIDS). It examines the complexities of borrowing a school improvement model from a larger and more open system (the UK) and the possibilities for adapting it to the local needs. It also considers the significance of the small island and centralised contexts into which the school improvement model was imported. In so doing, the research attempts to determine the factors that may help schools in the SIDS context to develop the internal capacity to improve and to establish the basis for a possible model for school improvement in SIDS. The research is significant because it provides originality as the only study of school improvement in Seychelles secondary schools. It also contributes further insights into the development of the Seychelles School Improvement Programme (SIP); it complements the existing knowledge base on the SIP and adds to the scant literature on school improvement in small states and in centralised systems. The study attempts to capture the multi-faceted nature of the SIP and the multiple forms of people’s understanding of it, by examining the most salient aspects of the Programme from the perspectives of different stakeholder groups, through the case study approach. A 40% sample of the country’s state secondary schools were studied, using documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews and observation of meetings as the means of data collection. While the SIP has had far reaching implications for school development in the Seychelles system and school improvement strategies such as development planning and school-based professional development have become institutionalised, schools are yet to take ownership of them. It is hoped that the findings of this study may contribute to educators’ reflections on effective teaching and learning as well as inform policy and practice.

Laversuch I. (2008) pp 375-394

An Unequal Balance: The Seychelles’ Trilingual Language Policy

Research Style: Explanatory: Case study of Seychellois LP and its consequences

Type of publication: Article in: Current issues in language planning, (9) 4

Abstract: In 1976, the Seychelles government made Creole its third official language, alongside French and English. Although Creole is the native language for most Seychellois, this language policy change has remained contentious. While some have hailed it as essential to democracy, others have condemned it for widening the nation’s socioeconomic divide. After describing the Seychelles’ modern demography and trilingual policies, details surrounding this controversy are presented. The socioeconomic pressures facing the nation’s official languages are explored. The policy issues raised help shed light on Creole-speakers, a group whose interests are often overlooked in language planning discussions for minority empowerment.

Whitehead, C. (2008) pp. 95-111

A proper subject of reproach to the Empire’: reflections on British education policy in the Seychelles 1938-1948′

Research Style: Analysis of colonial language policies      

Type of publication: Article in:  Education, research and perspectives, (35) 2,

Abstract: The Seychelles, one of Britain’s more remote Indian Ocean colonies, long suffered a totally inadequate system of schooling based mainly on the Roman Catholic mission. This article traces how education policy was challenged in the 1930s and changed in the 1940s. Emphasis is placed on the decisive role of the colonial governor in initiating and implementing a change in policy and the absence of any sense of overriding direction and control emanating from Whitehall.

Whitehead, C. (2008) pp. 95-111

A proper subject of reproach to the Empire’: reflections on British education policy in the Seychelles 1938-1948′

Research Style: Analysis of colonial language policies      

Type of publication: Article in:  Education, research and perspectives, (35) 2,

Abstract: The Seychelles, one of Britain’s more remote Indian Ocean colonies, long suffered a totally inadequate system of schooling based mainly on the Roman Catholic mission. This article traces how education policy was challenged in the 1930s and changed in the 1940s. Emphasis is placed on the decisive role of the colonial governor in initiating and implementing a change in policy and the absence of any sense of overriding direction and control emanating from Whitehall.

Jules, R. & Conner, L. (2009) pp19-34

Nature of science in Science in the National Curriculum of Seychelles: Recommended policy and practice changes

Research Style: Diagnostic: Evaluation of science policies and identification of shortcomings              

Type of publication: Pacific-Asian Education, (21) 1

Abstract: Nature of science (NOS) is discussed as encapsulating the science education community’s consensus on ‘what science is’. This is a fundamental component of science education. Document analysis of science in the national curriculum of Seychelles and Seychelles National Curriculum Framework reveals an under-representation of NOS. The authors argue that the nature of science should be a strong focus of science education in Seychelles because it will help people to increase their understanding of science and the practice of science.

Hungi, N., Thuku, F (2010) pp.63-101

Variations In Reading Achievement Across 14 Southern African School Systems:  Which Factors Matter

Research Style: Experimental: Analysis of pupils’ achievement in relation to pupil and school level factors      

Type of publication: Article in International Review of Education (56) 1

Abstract: In this study the authors employed a multilevel analysis procedure in order to examine the pupil and school levels factors that contributed to variation in reading achievement among Grade 6 primary school pupils in 14 southern African school systems (Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zanzibar). The data for this study were collected in 2002 as part of a major project known as the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) that sought to examine the quality of education offered in primary schools in these countries. The most important factors affecting variation in pupil achievement across most of these school systems were grade repetition, pupil socioeconomic background, speaking the language of instruction at home, and Pupil age. South Africa, Uganda and Namibia were among the school systems with the largest between-school variation while Seychelles and Mauritius had the largest within-school variation. Low social equity in reading achievement was evident in Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.

Barallon, L, (2011)

Leadership development in small island states: the case of the Seychelles

Research Style: Explanatory: Study of head teachers leadership program; its implementation and outcome

Type of publication: PhD Thesis

Abstract: Since 2002, educational leadership training has been offered to senior school leaders through a partnership between Seychelles and UK universities but it is not clear whether these qualifications enable head teachers to lead their institutions effectively. In practice, the acquisition of such training is being considered in the selection and appointment of senior school leaders but this is not yet an official policy. This thesis reports research focused on people in headship and other senior leadership positions in Seychelles who have followed one of these programmes. The research is an evaluation of the leadership development project designed to inform senior ministry officials of its impact. It presents a critical view of leadership development and its impact in a specific context, a SIDS with a centralised education system. In a survey involving 100% of these trained leaders, the interview responses highlight issues related to the basis of their selection for training and subsequent appointment in post; their training experiences, the extent to which they have been able to put into practice what they have learnt, and how their learning has impacted on their respective school.

Noyau, C. (2011) pp 301-322

Les divergences curriculum – évaluation certificative dans les écoles primaires bilingues de pays du sud : Conséquences du point de vue de l’acquisition du bilinguisme

Research Style: Correlational: Contrastive analysis of evaluation procedures in relation to curriculum content

Type of publication: Article in The Canadian Modern Language Review (67) 3

Abstract: Abstract: This paper presents a critical study of summative assessment at the primary school level in three countries of southern Francophonie –namely Mali, Mauritania, Seychelles – that operate with bilingual curricula. It provides an analysis of the links and divergences between curricula and assessment, notably the assessment modes fit to a competence-based approach (CBA), the implementation of qualification procedures (conception, application, marking) and their affordances and limits from the point of a curriculum designed to provide bilingual education.


Marie, S. (2012)

Induction of newly qualified teachers in the Seychelles: professional and organisational dimensions

Research Style: Explanatory: Exploration of induction process of new teachers with solutions for improvement             

Type of publication: PhD Thesis

Abstract: The research aimed at discovering if and how NQTs were inducted and supported during their first years of teaching. The management and implementation of induction were examined and NQTs’ perceptions of their induction experiences were sought, thus bringing to light their socialisation process within their institution. The research is significant as it is the first major study of induction and mentoring in both primary and secondary schools in the country, targeting a cohort of new teachers. It explored the issue of induction and mentoring holistically by using mixed methods. The NQTs’ perceptions of their induction and subsequent mentoring were obtained through a survey questionnaire. In addition, key officials and policy makers in the Ministry of Education were interviewed, to ascertain their intentions and expectations of new teacher induction. Finally, three case studies (two in primary schools and one in a secondary school) were carried out, enabling the researcher to explore the induction and mentoring practices in these schools in depth. The findings revealed that induction in the Seychelles is incidental, lasting for about a week. The head teachers play a pivotal role in welcoming new teachers only and the subject leaders play the dual role of mentors and assessors. The induction process is not successful because school leaders lack the expertise to design, implement and evaluate their induction programmes. Hence, this research leads to a proposal for an induction model with implications for policy development and with a recommendation for a decentralised induction process which will cater for, the socialisation, the improved competence and the continued professional development of novice teachers.

Figaro, V. (2012)

Accountability of primary schools in the Seychelles: A stakeholder analysis

Research Style: Explanatory: Analysis of accountability practices in primary schools

Type of publication: PhD Thesis

Abstract: Through a mixed methods approach using questionnaires, interviews, observations as well as documentary analysis in two case studies, the study uses a conceptual base to examine school leaders and teachers’ accountability from the perspectives of five stakeholder groups: headteachers, subject coordinators, teachers, schools’ PTA chairpersons and students. In the primary schools, job descriptions have a significant influence on the understanding of accountability, where it is mostly taken to mean responsibility. Accountability in the primary schools is problematic in many aspects, particularly in the use of reporting as an accountability mechanism, recording preceding account giving, consequences, responding to demands of accountability from stakeholders because of their various interests and the lack of reciprocal accountability from parents and students in decision making. The study also indicated some positive trends emerging in schools, including professional accountability where mechanisms in place enhance highly collaborative relationships among teachers and school leaders.

Shamlaye, C. (2014)


Exploring relationships between parent perceptions of pretend play value and the frequency

and quality of children pretend play”

Research Style: Descriptive review of literature

Type of publication: Master’s thesis

Abstract: The literature review begins with an exploration of what constitutes play, specifically pretend play. It discusses the evidence for the view that pretend play is important for development and examines existing research to date on how parent behaviour and perceptions about play relate to children’s reported and observed play. Finally, it proposes areas for further investigation.

Robert, S. (2017)

Exploring teachers’ perceptions of school counsellors’ roles and functions in two secondary schools on Mahé

Research Style: Exploratory study of teacher’s attitudes towards the work of school counsellors.       

Type of publication: Master’s thesis

Abstract: The study explores how teacher’s perceptions on the school counsellor’s role influence their involvement with the School Counsellor. The data was collected through the use of focus group discussions with teachers and semi structured interviews with School Counsellors in two public secondary schools.

Joubert, S. (2017)

The link between social problems in the community and misbehaviour in schools

Research Style: Exploratory study of causal relationship 

Type of publication: Master’s thesis

Abstract: The paper reports findings from a study on the link between social problems in the community and misbehaviour in schools. Data were gathered via semi-structured questionnaires. The participants  were teachers, counsellors, management team member as schools’ personnel and social workers as support agency to the school. The research was carried out in nine (9) different schools including four primary and five secondary.

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